Spock's world was a novel by Diane Duane, printed in 1988, that was heavily influential in the way people looked at Vulcan culture, both fans and the writers for the official show. The plot is that Vulcan is considering seceeding from the Federation, and Enterprise goes there to attend the proceedings and so that Kirk, Spock, and McCoy can testify on the Federation's behalf, and also participate in some Vulcan intrigue as they try to figure out why this is happening. Each chapter is interspersed with a chapter about a particular event in Vulcan's history that either had a big effect on Vulcan development or was particuclarly representative of larger trends. I thought I'd summarize the historical material for those who haven't read it, and give some quotes I think are interesting. It's a very good book, and I'd recommend it to anyone who hasn't read it.
( Interludes on Vulcan )
My meta on how this affects the Reboot universe: Worldbuilding and the New Reality